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Artist Bio

Nari Ward


Museum Magazine

August 31, 2017



May 18, 2017


The New York Times

January 27, 2017


The New York Times

July 8 2016


Nari Ward brings Mango Tourists and other exotics to the Barnes Foundation The Philadelphia Inquirer

June 25 2016


Nari Ward: The story behind an artwork in the artist's own words Modern Painters

June 1 2016


Sculpture Finds a Parking Space on the High Line Wall Street Journal

April 30 2016


Sculpture Finds a Parking Space on the High Line Wall Street Journal

April 27 2016


An Artist and a Poet Capture Death in a Hospice Room T Magazine

April 16 2016


A Sense of Placeness High Line Magazine

April 14 2016


Homegrown philanthropy fuels the new Speed Art Museum The Art Newspaper

March 10 2016


Video: Nari Ward show at Pérez Art Museum Miami Miami Herald

February 21 2016


The Historical and Fictional Worlds of Nari Ward Hyperallergic

February 11 2016


Nari Ward with Nicole Smythe-Johnson Miami Rail

December 12 2015


Nari Ward’s found object sculptures explore history and power Financial Times

December 4 2015


Book Signing with Nari Ward Pérez Art Museum Miami

December 3 2015


Nari Ward Looks Back at Two Decades of Work in "Sun Splashed" at PAMM

November 28 2015


Art Basel Week 2015 Guide: At the Museums Miami Herald

November 26 2015


In 'Breathing Directions,' Nari Ward Gathers Layers of African-American History New York Times

October 30 2015


Nari Ward at Lehmann Maupin Art in America

October 30 2015


25 Most Collectable Midcareer Artists: Nari Ward Artnet

September 30 2015


See: Nari Ward's Breathing Directions New York Magazine

September 26 2015


Timeless Symbols Pack Nari Ward’s Sculptures with Meaning The Creators Project

September 24 2015


Nari Ward BOMB Magazine

September 17 2015


Nari Ward: Breathing Directions at Lehmann Maupin Elephant Magazine

September 16 2015



March 27, 2015



March 25, 2015



March 24, 2015


Design & Trend

March 10, 2015


Nari Ward’s "Divination X" to Grace Gardner Museum Façade Boston Magazine

January 5 2015


Artnet News

June 9, 2014


Sculpture Magazine

June 2013



May 2013


Mousse Magazine Nari Ward interviewed by Anna Daneri

April 2013


New York Times Review 'NYC 1993' Exhibition at New Museum

February 14, 2013


The New York Times

February 14, 2013


Whitewall Magazine Installation View: Nari Ward's 1993

February 1, 2013



February 1, 2013


New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York Nari Ward: Amazing Grace

January 17 - April 21, 2013


The Wall Street Journal

January 16, 2013



January 2013


The Brooklyn Rail

April 30, 2012


New York Observer

April 27, 2012


Huffington Post

April 8, 2012


Nari Ward Receives Rome Prize

April 2012



March 31, 2012



March 27, 2012


Modern Painters

January 31, 2012


Philadelphia Weekly

November 2, 2011


International Review of African American Art

November 30, 2010



April 30, 2010


Art in America

April 30, 2010



April 30, 2010


The New York Times

April 2, 2010



December 31, 2008


The New Yorker

November 24, 2008


The New York Times

August 24, 2007



March 31, 2006



April 30, 2005


Art in America

November 30, 2004


V Magazine

December 31, 2001


The New York Times

August 6, 2000


The Observer

October 27, 1997


The New York Times

August 10, 1997


The Village Voice

October 9, 1996


Flash Art

September 30, 1996



June 30, 1995

Nari Ward

BOMB Magazine

By Lee Jaffe

I met Nari Ward in San Gimignano, Italy, at a sit-down dinner that Gallery Continua was having for the opening of their Ai Weiwei exhibition in 2012. Ward came up to me and said, “I think you are in a movie I just saw!” Of the 300 odd invitees to the dinner, he was the only one who looked Jamaican.

I had lived in Bob Marley’s house in Kingston for three years in the ’70s, initially working to arrange the first two North American tours and eventually playing harmonica in his band. The documentary Marley, di- rected by Kevin MacDonald, had just been released and parts of an interview with me appear throughout the movie.

I surveyed the vast, immaculately restored, medi- eval room and its lily-white crowd and nodded, “Yes, that was me.”

At the time, Nari was living in Rome for a year, be- ing the recipient of The Rome Prize from the American Academy. As I was residing in Florence, we exchanged contacts and a few months later he called and invited me for a visit. The American Academy in Rome could be called The American Academy Above Rome—it is housed in a palatial villa situated on a hill looking down on the Pantheon. As we sat in the grand dining room with its cathedral ceiling and tapestried walls, after an elaborate eight-course dinner (not for me as I’m veg- etarian), Nari began discussing plans for his upcoming exhibition at Continua, and mentioned that he needed a photographer to document a performance piece for the show. When he explained that the work was based on his uncle, a Jamaican musician, I knew I was qualified to help realize his vision. A few months later we shot the photo series Sun Splashed in twenty residences in Rome and Florence. Nari’s only stipulation for the loca- tions was that there be an existing houseplant on the premises.

Active as an artist since the early ’90s, Ward has created countless large-scale sculptures and imposing provocative installations, many of which involve found objects and complex layers of historical and contem- porary references. In this conversation we decided to discuss three major works of his that I felt a particular affinity with due to my own involvement with Jamaican culture.

—Lee Jaffe

LEE JAFFE: We are looking at one of the works to be shown in your upcoming survey at the Perez Art Museum in Miami. It’s called Happy Smilers and it’s from 1996.

NARI WARD: I made it for my first gallery show. Prior to that I was an art- ist in residence at the Studio Museum in Harlem, and I did a project, called Amazing Grace, in an old firehouse in my Harlem neighborhood.

L J: Let’s talk about Happy Smilers first. (siren noises from the street) Can you turn off that siren?

N W: This is Harlem, man! But let me run out to them. (laughter)

L J: You’re gentrifying the neighborhood! NW: I’ve been here long before all this

L J: No man, that’s why it’s getting gen- trified, because you were here first.

N W: The building that is my studio now used to be the exhibition space where I did Amazing Grace.

L J: This was the old firehouse?

N W: Yeah. Now it’s very different, of course. In the mid-'90s, when Jeffrey Deitch, who had just started Deitch Projects, invited me to do an exhibition, I thought, A white cube is a really tough space! I wanted to reference this situa- tion I saw: The owner of my old studio, on 125th Street and Lexington Avenue, was running an illegal gambling busi- ness behind the fake front of a candy store. People would come in and play their numbers among all the parapher- nalia of a candy shop. Everyone on the block knew, including the police, but they had other things to deal with. So

it was this kind of known fiction, this almost normal situation. So I decided to use this idea of a lived fiction at Deitch Projects. I wanted to make a kind of happy, jovial experience so I had this yellow awning, saying “Happy Smilers” and then you had Tropical Fantasy soda bottles—

L J: —hanging from the ceiling.

N W: They're very colorful. You get them in the corner stores of mostly low- income neighborhoods.

L J: It’s a remake of the candy shop in a way.

N W: Exactly. It’s like, “Hey, this is all very safe and fun,” and maybe a bit dis- turbing if you consider that the bottles are basically colorful sugar water.

L J: And there were the colors of the Jamaican flag.

N W: Tropical Fantasy soda probably had that inherently in it. But there was also the reference to the original Happy Smilers album.

L J: When did you discover the album?

N W: I grew up with that album; my father played it all the time. I had two uncles in the Happy Smilers group, uncle Euton and uncle Robin. They were an original mento band, a kind of Jamaican folk.

The show was also about the idea of the artist as entertainer, and maybe a kind of place-keeper for other expec- tations. It’s like, We know this guy, he’s supposed to be happy and jovial. However, if you put him into another context that is ambiguous, would he become something else? This piece is all about the altering of context.

L J: This is the Jamaican diaspora in Harlem, integrated into a traditional fabric of Harlem.

N W: But it’s any space outside of home, outside of the original context. That’s the side of dislocation I was talking about. It’s these two spaces combined. I wanted a certain experience as you enter the space, I wanted this moment of, Oh, this is great fun! Island music
is playing, the walls are all yellow, and right away you’re probably smil- ing. But then you go inside, and your mood changes. You walk into a strange tapestry of household material, woven together with fire hoses. Almost like an abode, or a ceremonial space.

L J: It looks like compacted trash.

N W: They’re all so-called “discards,” familiar things that were given another kind of presence, a special moment in the narrative. The fire hoses that I had gathered for this installation were all ruptured and no longer functional. Nothing there is functional, now serving a different purpose.

L J: And there’s a fire escape hanging from the ceiling.

N W: Yeah, it’s no longer just a fire escape. Because once you take it away from the building it’s actually a sculp- tural object. From one side it reads as a fire escape, and from the other side it reads like a jail structure.

LJ: A fire escape for escaping from nowhere to nowhere. It’s suspended. It’s a spectacular image.

N W: An important element on the hang- ing fire escape is the aloe vera plant. Most people know that aloe vera is a healing plant. I wanted to bring in this element of nature that was about rejuve- nation and healing.

L J: A kind of optimism, a possibility. And the speakers in the middle of the space, they are like an altar.

N W : Exactly. When you go from The Happy Smilers soundtrack to the big speakers in the center of the room, you hear what I remember hearing in Jamaica as a small child—the sound of rain hitting the tin roof. I would go to sleep hearing this sound. I recorded that, but when I played the recording in the space with the fire hose, it was really strange, because instead of sounding like rain it sounded like the flickering of flames. I would never have gone there with the association of rain becoming fire if it wasn’t for the presence of the fire hose and the fire escape.

L J: So it’s the rain, which is a symbol of regeneration, and at the same time it’s the sound of flames. And there’s the fire escape, a kind of prison, an enclosure.

N W: I guess that’s exactly what I felt, this notion of confinement and limita- tion. That’s why the aloe vera plant came in as this symbol of light and potential that gave hope to the piece.

L J: And then you got your uncles entertaining.

N W: Yeah, the Happy Smilers are there. I recently visited my storage facility to inspect the piece for my museum ret- rospective this year. I felt very aware of the amount of repetitive work it took to build the piece. Now I have a little bit of success and I can hire people to
help me.

L J: Back then you had to make that whole thing yourself?

N W: I was there like a true Jamaican immigrant, working twelve-hour days non-stop for a month. Happy Smilers became also about labor as a transformative force—

L J: —You’re the slave and the slave mas- ter at the same time.

N W: Yeah, I guess that’s a good way of putting it. But the idea of transforma- tion has always been something that I romanticize in a work. I’m cautious of it but I also need it to connect my thought with the process of making. That’s really important.

L J: How did you get the fire hose?

N W: From the New York City Fire Department, just across the street from my former studio on 125th Street. One day I had found an old piece of fire hose, and I was like, Wow, this is great material. So I went over to the fire house and said, “Hey, guys, do you have any extra fire hose?” And they’re like, “No, but why don’t you go to the hose room in Long Island. Whenever a hose is busted, it goes there.” They gave me the address and sure enough, this is where all five boroughs bring their busted fire hoses. The guy there explained to me, “We have a big problem here. We used to repair the hoses ourselves, but now the insurance companies don’t allow us to do that anymore, and so we have to toss them. But the sanitation don’t wanna take them.” “I want them,” I said. And they’re like, “Oh, good. We’ll bring ‘em to you.” After a while, I was getting fire hoses delivered to my studio. Soon I had no more room and I had to say, “Stop!” I did three major projects with the material! I could have easily become the fire hose artist, you know. It’s a very seductive and resilient material.

I’d love to do an entire line of house- wares out of this stuff. It’s strong andso weighted symbolically, but also very comfortable and soft. It’s an industrial material that can become organic, you can twist and turn it like a vine. And it’s a material that comes with these two relevant signifiers, fire and water, both elements of regeneration.

L J: Let’s return to Amazing Grace.

N W: It was an installation of about 365 baby strollers that I had collected from the streets. I picked up the baby strollers that were discarded by so-called mar- ginalized folks.... That piece that was a reference to what was happening at the time; you know, a community in crisis.

L J: Right, and you just captured the space, the abandoned fire house.

N W: I was fortunate, though, because the woman who allowed me to rent the space wasn’t interested in making a profit. She just wanted me to pay for the upkeep. She was very generous and a supporter of art.

L J: I saw Amazing Grace at the New Museum two years ago. The context, the topology, was so radically different.

N W: It’s been shown in at least five different locations now: Paris, Athens, Vienna, Torino, Geneva.... I’ve been intrigued with the change of context because in every situation, people bring their cultural experience to the piece.

In Athens, I remember people talking about the baby chairs like remnants, almost from an archaeological perspec- tive. In Vienna, we showed the work in a former horse stable of the king and it was viewed as a dialogue about class. In Geneva it seemed even more vulnerable since it was installed next to automo- biles in a parking lot of the World Health Organization Headquarters. For me it’s not problematic to shift with these differ- ent references—in fact I learn from that.

L J: And seeing it at the New Museum in this white cube—

N W: It was actually on the ground floor, in their adjacent storefront space. It was next to the New Museum, but it wasn’t in the museum. But the context of the Bowery was important for the piece.

L J: Yeah, the history of thatneighborhood and the homeless people, it’s inseparable from the work.

N W: The piece is echoing the margins, and so it works on that level. But then you don’t want to be the poster child of the margin, the marginal artist, right? (laughter) You don’t want to be the crazy guy shouting outside the house. You want to effect change by getting in the house. Amazing Grace will be shown next in Milan; an exhibition this fall that deals with motherhood, very exciting!

L J: Well you know so much about that!

N W: It’s the life cycle of this object and how it reflects on human conditions, that really interests me. It’s like a first-world vehicle, it’s the first time the baby leaves the mother’s, or the parent’s, arms and is pushed into the world, experiencing the world in this new way. That’s a powerful moment. There’s this idea of protection, and nurturing, but then, the strollers are discarded and get used by marginalized individuals who pick up bottles and cans to make ends meet, people who are per- ceived as being failures.

L J: Let’s talk about the music with Amazing Grace.

N W: The sound is equivalent to the aloe vera plant that was in Happy Smilers— this element of hope, of light. When I was putting together all these strollers, the piece became so heavy and dark; there was this sense of despair, and I wanted to pull that back. I needed to find a sound to do that. I grew up with my father playing Mahalia Jackson soundtracks, he was a big fan.

L J: I grew up with that too!

N W: Yeah, beautiful powerful voice, man. So I said, I’m sure Mahalia could save this work for me. One of my favorite standards is her rendition of “Amazing Grace.”

L J: She’s the first black person to sing “Amazing Grace” at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville.

N W: Oh, I didn’t know! That song was written by a white slave owner, it’s basically a song about his transforma- tion and repentance. He was on a slave ship, in a furious storm, he felt that the ship would be tossed and broken up. And he got on his knees and prayed to God to spare him, and promised that he would stop being a slave owner and slave trader. And apparently he was spared, and this song is a result of that experience, it’s about him awakening, becoming a sort of abolitionist—

L J: So he freed all the cargo?

N W: I don’t know if he freed the cargo, but he promised God he was going to live a different life.

L J: So he wrote the song.

N W: Yeah. So when you walk through the Amazing Grace installation, on the exterior of the piece the strollers are like frozen in time, and then in the interior they are intertwined with the fire hose, knotted and tied. It’s almost as if they’re chained. But I was thinking of them more like being entangled in their own growth. The twined and wrung fire hoses are like roots piercing each stroller. So the idea was that the stroll- ers on the interior are overwhelmed by some kind of energy, and then the stroll- ers on the exterior are sort of watching their situation. And you, as the viewer, participate in that theater by walking through.

L J: In Amazing Grace at the New Museum, the sound goes into the street and the street becomes part of the experience.

N W: Exactly. If I were to reinstall that piece, I would have more of the sound outside so passersby would wonder, What’s going on here?

L J: Mahalia Jackson’s “Amazing Grace” recording was very important during the Civil Rights Movement in the ’60s and ’70s.

N W: She had a major role. She was a big supporter of Dr. King and a real rock for him.

L J: Sound transcends the constraints of space and time. Mahalia Jackson’s voice transported me to a time inextricably linked with the Civil Rights Movement. Her transcendent voice commingling with the detritus of abandoned stroll- ers and punctured fire hoses, arranged on the floor in a shape reminiscent of a slave ship, transformed the museum into a sort of storefront cathedral. And right next door is the Bowery Mission, a homeless shelter created in 1879 through a Christian organization.

So we’re confronted with the para- dox of a work of modern art, which is such a product of the Enlightenment, and specifically Christian. Which leads to the next paradox, as Christianity is the root of colonialism, and intrinsically of race theory, which was used to justify the African slave trade and the genocide of indigenous cultures in the Caribbean and the Americas.

Seeing your work brought me back to a song of Bob Marley’s, Talkin’ Blues. I was at his wife’s Rita’s house in 1974 and I slept on the floor on the porch. When I woke up, Bob had a bowl of por- ridge for me and started singing: “Cold ground was my bed last night, and rock was my pillow too. Talkin’ Blues. Your feet is too big for your shoes.” And then it has the line, “I feel like bombin’ a church now that you know that the preacher is lyin’.”

N W: Pretty radical, blowing up a church.

L J: And it’s the frustration of an island where there’s more Christian churches per square inch than any country in the world. And all the hypocrisy of the church.

N W: For me, the connection between Harlem and Jamaica is also the church. In the Guinness Book of World records it may even be Jamaica and Harlem that have the most churches per square mile. Religion has a dual component of being an opiate for the people, as Marx would say, but on some level it also can, at its best, unite, as in the Civil Rights Movement. So I never really want to discard the importance of faith. Faith, well-placed, is a powerful tool. And that’s the problem, it allows for manipulation.

L J: So then the question I have is, does the sculpture Amazing Grace turn the religiosity of the recording into some- thing profane? Is it addressing the failure of religion sixty years after the Mahalia Jackson recording? Here we are walking into the New Museum on the Bowery, and right next door we have all these homeless people, and almost all of them are people of color.

N W: Yeah, yeah.

L J: So in a way, your piece was addressing this failure.

N W: There is lack of change and a break- down in support, but I keep getting back to that notion of hope. Yeah, I’m super-critical of religion and its limita- tions, but there is also the possibility of effecting change. I have a very compli- cated relationship with my faith, being a Baptist. I’m not a devout Baptist by any means—I live next to a church and that’s the closest I get to going there. (laughter) But I always feel it gives a perspective. Religion can give you distance from your situation, and I think that’s what I want, distance even from the contemporary art experience. It’s about having you step back, having you pull outside of the tendrils of connection and murkiness that life offers. It gives you this other position to view reality. Within a good preacher’s sermon there’s a lot of repetition. And all this repetition is about reinforcing one’s relationship with the moment. In my piece, Mahalia Jackson’s voice was pulling you into another space, a space of devotion, or of just beauty perhaps, of power and empowerment.

L J: Here’s something that I grapple with constantly in my own work: How does one infiltrate the market without denigrating the underlying aims of what’s ultimately a subversive practice? Because without a venue, such as a museum, to draw a large audience, the work is kind of neutered. In fact one might say that only when perception occurs does a work become an artwork. In your case, until you were able to pen- etrate the art market, the work would have never been able to be realized in that museum space.

N W: You are correct in that I made it as a conversation with my neighborhood, about identifying a crisis that I saw within the community. That was the impetus and it never occurred to me that the work would survive beyond that. At some point I thought I could make it smaller for some future itera- tion but then a collector saw the piece in Harlem, and said, “I want this entire thing, I love it, I want it.” And right away that changed the piece. It got a chance to live in these other places— on three continents and in five differ- ent venues. It’s interesting to think about the market. I went through the student museum in Harlem as an art- ist in residence, and that’s actually when Amazing Grace was built. A lot of people don’t know this because the program is so successful now, but one of the museum’s early mandates was to acknowledge and give a platform to art- ists of color who had been overlooked by the market. And even now, when we have many artists of color being snatched up and brought into major museums and so-called “blue chip gal- leries,” there’s still this oversight—all these artists from the '70s to today, who never got their support, are still being left out. I’m fortunate enough to be mak- ing work in a time when the market is hungry for that other voice that they’ve sorely overlooked.

I remember my first art history book when I was going to school in the mid-'80s. It was Janson’s History of Art. The only African American art- ists in this huge book were, I think, Jacob Lawrence and Romare Bearden. Museums are now trying to get art- ists from the ’60s and ’70s, maybe the '50s, and even moreso young African Americans. So we’ve come a long way, but still a lot is being overlooked. The market is a wild card that you can’t run after—I just do my work. There are works that function in the market and then there are things that I make that could never be consumed readily. I mean it takes a very unique person— curator or collector—to want the more politically-driven works. That’s a reality that I’ve come to live with.

L J: Let’s go to Sun Splashed. In this photo series you are wearing your uncle Eaton Ward’s performance outfit. In channeling your uncle you’ve elevated him to a heroic status, but at the same time you’ve exposed him to his own vulnerability. You have him drenched in sweat in this costume, a type used in the ’50s and ’60s for entertainers who would be performing for tourists in Jamaica. By accepting to wear this costume your uncle was accepting the myth of the Happy Smiler.

N W: He was a survivor just like the African American minstrel character—a nice, entertaining guy who was in some way disparaged but found a way to feed his family and survive. To add another layer, the hotel that made the Happy Smilers album for my uncle was called The Plantation Inn. It’s the plantation legacy.

L J: The hotel owners had to make the tourists feel comfortable and they tried to dispel the racist image of the black African savage.

N W: The angry savage.

L J: So they put them in these costumes.

N W: Most of the tourists to Jamaica were Europeans, they wanted the benefit of the plantation without the undertone of that horror and suppres- sion. So these guys sort of fulfilled that, they were happy entertainers.

L J: And in the early ’60s, being from Jamaica, if you wanted to survive by making music, this was one of the only ways.

N W: I remember my uncle Euton being very charismatic. He was able to travel, they even did a tour to Germany, and when he came back he was a bit of the star, even to regular Jamaicans he was this special character.

L J: And that was before ska, before reggae, and around the time of “inde- pendence” from England. Before the first Bob Marley and the Wailers hit record came out, in 1964. That was called Simmer Down, and you had the music changing from mento, which was a slow, relaxing, folky kind of music, to a much more intense, faster rhythm. And the lyrics were saying, “Simmer down, the battle will get hotter.”

N W: Yeah. That was almost a predating of what was to come.

L J: Exactly. And here you had the euphoria of the independence, and now you’ve got the reality—it really isn’t independence. It’s independence in name, but the economic and social-political conditions haven’t changed.

N W: Right. When I adopted this char- acter in the ’90s for the Happy Smilers show at Deitch Projects, it was about the issue of power. There was a narra- tive of the immigrant, but it was also about the substatus quo for the individ- ual. I was reacting to what I experienced in my community in Harlem. But it was a difficult time in America in general, there was the crack epidemic hitting full force, and AIDS. So there was a real sense of crisis in these different areas: in health, in social justice, full-on, espe- cially for people who were vulnerable, people who were poor.

L J: Yes, and now we have emigrated your uncle into this new surrounding. Now he’s in Europe, in Italy.

N W: Yeah. This character no longer needed to be home, because it was about a psychological state of being dis- connected from place, this sense of not belonging, but at the same time being okay. For me it was really important that I not play this character as a victim. When you look at the image, there’s ambiguity—is he a pathetic, dependent person, or is he, in some ways, particu- larly dignified? That’s something you brought to it with the image you took of him. In the photographs, he seems to be sweating, or wet, he appears out of place, but he’s the plant in this pot, very much dependent but at the same time surviving. That surviving component, surviving with your dignity, was really important in balancing these portraits.

L J: I felt that the sweating was significant of someone who’s working really hard, but also someone who’s not accepting of the situation. There’s an underlying—

N W: —anxiety.

L J: And the intensity of your gaze as you posed in character; I worked on that in all the photos. Your gaze made me think of Frantz Fanon’s study Black Skin, White Masks, when he talks about the light-skinned guy from Martinique who goes to Paris. In Martinique he’s in a kind of elite class, because of his lighter skin, but when he gets to Paris people are looking at him completely differently and it’s shocking.

N W: He’s the other.

L J: The savage.

N W: I wanted my character to be more like a domestic wild and unpredictable element. He is easily understood as coming from another place. But I wanted him to seem to fit into this con- text. Perhaps he doesn’t. So the tension is not necessarily that he’s coming from somewhere else when he’s there, but that maybe he belongs there—like the plant. He’s come to terms with being the potted plant and he’s got his own set of problems that relate to that situ- ation. The untamed is the wild growing foliage and you can imagine the reali- ties of that. The potted plant is much more anxious because it may want to be wild and unhindered, but it can’t! He’s got to make a living. I want to acknowledge that other predicament— you can’t necessarily go back to being “other” anymore. You have to figure out how to be different within. That’s why this work made so much sense in Europe, because there is a whole set of problems that comes with immigration, people coming from other countries. They never really assimilate, they can’t because of the strong tradition of the host country, so they feel as if they’re under siege. In America it’s different, because there is this notion that everyone gets absorbed and becomes American.

L J: Yeah, the camera’s fixed, so the camera becomes the white person. And me being white, being the pho- tographer, I’m taking that position. In all the images, I was careful to be facing slightly upward, to give a pow- erful presence to your uncle and his transformation.

N W: I guess that’s why there’s this ele- ment of this person’s dignity. And it’s finding that line between this sense of anxiety, and you mention the sweating and the labor, and this almost heroic persona that’s parked within that.

L J: Yeah, how is he surviving in this situation?

N W: Right. Which is the premise for what I want the viewer to think about: How is this person surviving? How is he belonging?

L J: Also, we were in Italy, the birth- place of the Renaissance, and Europe is where race theory was first formulated. And now in the 21st century, being so informed by the cultural theorist Stuart Hall, a Jamaican who immigrated to the UK and revealed race to be a social construct and a “floating signifier.” We are left with the nasty residue of those earlier racial theories.

N W: With the whole European Union experiment, one of the hard things
for them to figure out is how to deal with the “other.” It’s okay to be able to have this conversation and commerce between these several European coun- tries. But what happens when you have an influx of people coming from Asia
or Africa, how does that change the dynamic, what does immigration mean?

L J: Jamaica being an island, it’s a whole country of dispossessed people. The Spanish annihilated all the indigenous people. Everyone is a displaced person.

N W: That model has been fortified by the business of slavery, the business of colonialism. All of these businesses cre- ated this entity.

L J: And now you have the multi-national hotels and all-inclusive resorts on the island, mostly not owned by Jamaicans, but by foreign corporations. People pay abroad with a credit card and the money doesn’t go to Jamaica. There’s huge unemployment in Jamaica, so they can hire people for slave wages.

N W : The funny thing is that Jamaica created the notion of the “all-inclusive” hotel experience but now it’s destroy- ing the island, because the commerce doesn’t go into the community.

L J: The hotels are importing all the food into Jamaica although everything grows there.

N W: It’s a real problem.

L J: But I think there’s hope for change.
I’m feeling it. The island will be self-suf- ficient one day, which it can be.

N W: One of the problems that we talk about in any of these so-called third world countries is that the local people of wealth don’t support their own cul- tural institutions. There’s a contentious history to business being contingent on manipulation and on taking advan- tage of the other, there isn’t a notion of civic responsibility. People who are really talented leave, because they can’t really survive under those conditions. I want to go back and participate in the visual-cultural life in Jamaica and try to develop an art residency on the island.

L J: When you talked about your teach- ing experience there, it sounded as if there are really smart people coming out of art education.

N W: Yeah, I feel like the Edna Manley art school there has some excellent instruc- tors and produces very skilled artists. However, there isn’t enough support for artists to develop visions to help trans- form their communities. The pervasive model, like everywhere else, is to fol- low the market standard of success, which is selling your work to support your practice. And that’s the struggle and challenge for artists—to keep that creative flame active while creating resources that can affect change within their community.